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About the journal
NAUKA I TEKHNOLOGICHESKIE RAZRABOTKI (SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS), ISSN: 2079-5165, eISSN: 2410-7948, DOI: 10.21455/std; https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=32295; http://std.ifz.ru/. The journal was founded in 1992.
NATURAL EXPLOSIVE PROCESSES
IN THE PERMAFROST AREA
© 2017 A.N. Vlasov1, A.N. Khimenkov2, D.B. Volkov-Bogorodskiy1, Yu.K. Levin1
1Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Corresponding author: A.N. Khimenkov, e-mail: email@example.com
‒ Two types of natural explosive processes in the permafrost are described
‒ Explosions of blisters and icing mound are caused by water freezing in closed volumes
‒ The second type is release of gases during dissociation of gas hydrates in permafrost
‒ Stages of the natural explosive processes are considered
‒ Features of gas hydrate dissociation before impended explosions are shown
Abstract. The aim of the paper is the consideration of the group’s natural explosive processes on the area of permafrost, which have not been allocated. The first group described the long and associated with freezing of water in closed environments (explosions of blisters and icing mound). The second was allocated in the last 3 years. It is associated with the release of underground gases formed during dissociation of gas hydrate contained in permafrost. The cause of the explosion in both cases is formation overpressure in the soil mass containing free water or gas. Once pressure exceeds the strength of the roof of permafrost occurs her release. It can identify a number of common features of preparation of the explosive processes in the permafrost. First, there is a local zone where is concentrated substance forming explosion: over-freezing streambed ground water flow, water concentration zone in over-freezing soil mass, gas hydrates in frozen soil. Second, there is the pressure of a compressive the substance. Third, there are deformations in overlying soils. If pressure increases slowly and the roof have time to deform, then there is plastic deformation. In this case mounds are formed. It is expressed in the topography. If the pressure increases quickly then plastic deformation may not occur. Fourth, it is the explosion itself. As many authors described the explosion effect on the objects of various origins has common characteristics. It is a gas-saturated water and gas ejection, also ground and ice debris, which are launched on ten and sometimes on hundred meters. During dissociation of the gas hydrate in frozen ground first micro-cracks are arising. Then they make up ascended subvertical channels and elongate pores growing under sufficiently high pressure. Gas hydrat cropout on the soil surface and gas evaporation is prevented by the durable monolithic overlying ice-soil “cover”. As a result of this impossibility the crack-pore structure of the frozen ground is formed under “cover”. Then the width of crack opening and the pore size are increased with pressure grow by gas filtration from the source. They merge together founded cavity in which continue gas leakage. In the moment of exceeding the ultimate strength limit, the “cover” could not bear stresses and accumulated potential gas energy is released (i.e. transformed to the kinetic one) by the explosion. During Arctic development the hazard of explosion processes for engineering constructions will be increased. Nevertheless this group of risk is not only not considering under designing and prediction, but even not including in the group of danger geological processes.
Keywords: permafrost, gas hydrates, blister, explosion, crater, stages, dissociation.
Cite this article as: Vlasov A.N., Khimenkov A.N., Volkov-Bogorodskiy D.B., Levin Yu.K. Natural explosive processes in the permafrost area, Nauka i Tekhnologicheskie Razrabotki (Science and Technological Developments). 2017. Vol. 96, No. 3. P. 41–56. [Special issue “Applied Geophysics: New Developments and Results. Part. 1. Seismology and Seismic Exploration”]. [in Russian]. DOI: 10.21455/std2017.3-4
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About the authors
VLASOV Alexander Nikolaevich — Doctor of Technical Sciences, Director, Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPRIM RAS). 125040, Russia, Moscow, Leningradskii prospekt 7, stroenie 1. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
KHIMENKOV Alexander Nikolaevich — Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Sergeeva Institute of Geoecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGE RAS). 101000, Moscow, Ulansky pereulok 13, stroenie 2, PO Box 145. E-mail: email@example.com ((corresponding author).
VOLKOV-BOGORODSKIY Dmitry Borisovich — Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Leading Researcher, Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPRIM RAS). 125040, Moscow, Leningradskii prospekt 7, stroenie 1. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
LEVIN Yuri Konstantinovich — Candidate of Technical Sciences, Head of Laboratory, Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPRIM RAS). 125040, Moscow, Leningradskii prospekt 7, stroenie 1. E-mail: email@example.com